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[心得交流] 初级飞行员的基本滑翔技术

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发表于 2017-11-1 23:19 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
       在flybubble.com上看到这篇BASIC SOARING SKILLS FOR LOW AIRTIME PILOTS (低留空时间飞行员的基本滑翔技术)by Greg Hamerton on October 20th, 2017 at 8:52 pm (https://flybubble.com/blog/soaring-skills-low-airtime-pilots)觉得很适合和我差不多的雏鸟学习,因此试着翻译过来,分享给大家。由于第一次翻译此类文章,有些专业术语不够熟悉,还请各位行家不吝赐教。


Ridge soaring provides an essential learning environment for low airtime pilots, allowing you to build airtime without the turbulence and hit-and-miss altitude of thermic flying. But after you’ve gone up and down the ridge twenty times, what else can you do? Are there some things you could be exploring to improve your skills faster? Yes there are!
山脊翱翔为留空时间较少的飞行员提供了一个基本的学习环境,可以让你在不受湍流和进出热气流导致高度损失的影响下积累起飞行时间。但是,当你在山脊上下飞行20次后,还能做什么呢?有没有一些练习可以尝试用来更快地提高飞行技术呢?是哒,有!

1. LET THE WING PULL YOU UPHILL 让伞翼牵引你上坡

If the wind is straight onto the hill, running uphill will reduce the power. Let your wing pull you rather than fighting it by leaning back, which generates too much power and leads to an explosive launch. If there’s a crosswind, to avoid the danger of the wing pulling you downslope, lay out skew so the wing pulls uphill, it’s much easier to control. If you like everything you can steady the wing into wind, straight, and then launch (for more about this technique, read Crosswind Launching).
如果风向正对山坡,向坡上跑几步可以起到泄力的作用。与其身体向后用蛮力与伞翼相抗争、积聚能量而导致爆发式拽拉起飞,不如让伞翼来牵引着你。如果有侧风,为避免被伞翼拉向坡下造成危险,你可以采取不对称起伞,这样伞翼是向坡上拉,操控起来容易得多。如果都能做到,你可以在风中平稳地起伞,对正风向,然后起飞(关于侧风起飞技术的更多内容,请参考Crosswind Launching一文)。

2. SOAR THE UPWIND EDGE OF THE LIFT BAND 沿着升力带的上风边缘翱翔

When the wind is strong, you don’t need to be close in on the slope. Strong wind also means it’s more turbulent close to the slope, so it’s better to just point into wind, keep riding it until the lift stops.
当风大时,你不必紧贴山坡飞行。强风也意味着贴近山坡处有更多湍流,因此,最好对准风向向前飞,直到上升停止。
Once you’ve established where the edge of the lift band is, you can soar on the outside of that lift band, as far as possible from the Venturi (accelerated wind on top of the ridge). This gives you options: if the wind increases you’ve got more time to get on speedbar. You can also explore pockets of lift more, because you have more freedom of movement.
一旦确认了升力带的边际,你可以在升力带的外侧翱翔,依据文丘里效应(山脊顶端的加速风)越靠外侧越好。这样会给你更多空间:如果风力加强,你有更多时间来踩加速;由于有更大的自由空间,你也可以更好地探寻上升迹象。

3. LEARN TO MANAGE THE ENERGY DURING TURNS 学习在转弯过程中管理能量

When you’re ridge soaring, it’s a very good time to practice energy management. You want to try and get your turns so you’re not wasting energy, this will be very useful when you’re thermaling. So when you do a turn, try and make it so that when you come out of the turn there’s no second swing-through, controlling that pitch on the brakes so you make it really smooth. So put in a turn, let it swing through and try and control that energy. It’s very subtle, but when you get it right you’ll feel it’s really smooth.
当你在山脊翱翔,这是非常好的时机来练习能量管理。你应该努力尝试在转弯过程中不浪费能量,这个技能在将来盘热气流时会非常有用。因此,当你转弯时,尽量做到在转完弯出来时不需要矫正,用刹车来控制俯仰,做到尽量平顺。因此进入转弯时,要摆荡起来,尽量控制那个摆荡的能量。这个技术非常巧妙,但是一旦你做对了,你会觉得转弯非常顺滑。

4. DEVELOP YOUR PITCH CONTROL 提高你的俯仰控制

You can do the same with pitch control, just coming down on the brakes a bit, letting the glider dive forward, letting it swing through and trying to smoothen the pitch out. Pitch- and turn control are both useful skills to have, and the best time to build them up is when it’s smooth and soarable, so there’s nothing upsetting your controls.
你可以在俯仰控制上做同样的练习,拉下一定量的刹车,让伞翼向前俯冲,摆荡过去,然后练习平顺地改出。俯仰和转弯控制都是有用的必要技术,练习它们的最好时机就是在平顺的和有上升的天气里,这样没有其他因素干扰你的操控。

5. IMPROVE YOUR TIGHT TURNS 改进你的小转弯

Another thing you can practice is getting tight turns using weight shift first. Use a little bit of weightshift to start the turn, then two seconds later a bit of brake. Your glider wants to flatten out a little bit after the first 180, if you keep your weight in you get a really nice turn, play with that, come out of the turns, back to level smooth, and the whole time you’re working on getting your glider control so that the wing is nice and smooth, you don’t have these big pitches. It’s also quite a lot of fun.
另一个项目是练习先移动重心来转小弯。用一定量的重心移动来启动转弯,2秒后再用刹车。滑翔伞在转过前180度时会有漂移的趋势,如果这时候你用重心来保持,你的弯会转得非常漂亮;转完弯出来,平顺地回归平飞,滑翔伞操控的所有时间里,你都可以进行重心控制的练习,让伞翼的轨迹漂亮又顺滑;你不会出现那些大幅的摆荡,而且这个练习也会带给你很多乐趣。
Come around to 360, back to level, and try to lock your heading in. Find a point on the horizon and imagine that you’re coming in on rails. Developing this precise control really improves your ability to thermal accurately.
进行360盘旋后,回归平飞时,要努力锁定你前进的方向。在地平线上找一个点,想象你在轨道上行进。练习这种精准操控能真正提高你准确盘气流的能力。

6. IMPROVE YOUR BRAKE POSITION 改进你的刹车姿势

When you’re controlling your glider, try and avoid pushing your hands ahead of the risers. This is a common mistake. When you push forward you can start chafing the brake lines against the rear glider lines. You’re trying to stabilise your body by pushing away, and pushing yourself back into your harness. I’d suggest try and set your harness up better so you don’t feel the need to do that. A much better control position is to pull straight down, in line with the riser.
当你操控滑翔伞时,尽量避免把手伸到组带的前面,这是个常见的错误。如果伸到前面的话,你的刹车线会与后缘线相互摩擦。你可能会把手向前伸来调整坐姿或把自己推进坐袋。如果存在这种情况,我建议你最好调整坐袋来避免这样做。比较好的操控姿势是直接向下拉刹车,与组带方向一致。

7. PRACTICE 360 TURNS (HIGH AND AHEAD) 练习360盘旋(高度和前端)

If you’re far enough away from the slope, you can practice just gentle 360 turns, but be very careful of doing this when you’re ridge soaring, because you’ll really speed up towards the ridge during the downwind turn. So only if you’re high and well ahead. But it develops your spatial awareness and ability to judge the wind drift, vital skills for safe flying. Beware of the downwind devil!
在山脊翱翔时,如果你距离山坡足够远,可以练习温柔的360度盘旋,但必须非常小心,因为当你转到顺风的位置时,你其实是在加速冲向山脊。因此,只有当你高度足够和在上风时才可考虑这样做,但是这个练习会提高你的空间感知能力和对风向漂移的判断能力,是对安全飞行至关重要的技能。小心“下风魔鬼”!

8. USE POCKETS OF LIFT TO PROGRESS UPWIND 利用各种上升迹象来逆风飞扬

When it’s a bit thermic in soaring conditions, turn into wind. You can follow light lines of lift, upwind, to find the real thermal core. When your climb rate accelerates, turn and use your freshly honed skills to get a steady climb, all the way up!
翱翔环境中有一定热气流的话,即形成风。你可以跟踪上升迹象的光线,逆风,来找到真正的热气流核心。当你的爬升率加速时,调头盘旋,用你刚刚磨炼出的技术来进行稳定的爬升,一路向上!

9. AVOID WINDY PARTS OF THE TERRAIN. 避开风乱的地形区域

When soaring any kind of bowl, don’t fly to the very back of the bowl where the wind is funneled and accelerated. Any thermals that get forced into that area will add to the wind strength, and will be so slanted that you can’t use them to climb safely. If you fly out in front of these areas, or along protruding spines, you have a better chance of finding thermals you can use.
在任何盆地中翱翔,不要飞入盆地的下风区,那里的风是漏斗状的和加速的。吹进该区域的任何热气流都只会加强风力,而且很乱,你无法利用它们安全爬升。如果你在这些区域之外的上风飞行,或者沿着突起的山梁飞行,你有更好的机会发现可以利用的热气流。

10. HAVE FUN! 快乐飞行!
The pilots who develop fastest are the ones who play with their wings. Mess around on the ground, swoop over the bushes, practice your toplanding approaches, using your speedbar, going up, coming down. The sky is a massive playground, and the more you play in it the more you develop your skill set and expand your safety envelope.
进步最快的飞行员是那些与他们的伞翼尽情玩耍(人伞合一)的飞行员。在场地周围飞来舞去,从树梢上方呼啸而过,练习起飞场原降,使用加速,不是飞上去,就在降下来。天空是一个巨大的操场,你在里面玩得越多,你练就的技能就越多,同时也扩展了你的安全边际。
发表于 2017-11-2 10:14 | 显示全部楼层
发表于 2017-11-2 11:07 | 显示全部楼层
非常好
发表于 2017-11-2 15:20 | 显示全部楼层
这位同学太帅了
发表于 2017-11-2 17:52 | 显示全部楼层
发表于 2017-11-2 18:52 | 显示全部楼层
改进你的刹车姿势  这个图  貌似主钩都挂错了, 那个开口  应该在内侧

我感觉 一是为了单手开主钩方便   二是 防止  开口处损坏  主钩向外划出
发表于 2017-11-4 21:15 | 显示全部楼层
以上信息发自手机版论坛
发表于 2017-11-5 22:20 | 显示全部楼层
非常棒!
发表于 2017-11-6 14:17 | 显示全部楼层
好贴,学习
发表于 2017-11-6 20:57 | 显示全部楼层
发表于 2017-11-6 21:31 | 显示全部楼层
学习精神!
发表于 2017-11-7 09:58 | 显示全部楼层
在激发点转弯,及时放松刹车,速度和能量嗖嗖地就上来了。 我有几次在弱气流的时候,就是用这个办法熬上来的。
发表于 2017-11-7 12:43 | 显示全部楼层
很棒的文章!
发表于 2017-11-7 19:38 | 显示全部楼层
太好了!新鸟学习了
发表于 2017-11-8 15:12 | 显示全部楼层
非常棒!
发表于 2017-11-8 16:42 | 显示全部楼层
发表于 2017-11-12 23:54 | 显示全部楼层
赞赞赞非常好 以上信息发自手机版论坛
发表于 2017-11-15 17:33 | 显示全部楼层
好人啊!上帝与你同在!
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